23 October, 2012

The Hajj


The Arabic word HAJJ  means 'to leave for'
 It is the fifth pillar of Islam. It is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah; at least once in a lifetime a Muslim is expected to make a religious journey to Mecca and the Kaaba

Classified under:

Nouns denoting cognitive processes and contents

In Quran

“Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik (all the ceremonies of pilgrimage - Hajj and Umrah, etc.), and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.” (Quran: 2/128)

Verily! As-Safa and Al-Marwah (two mountains in Makkah) are of the Symbols of Allah. So it is not a sin on him who performs Hajj or Umrah (pilgrimage) of the House (the Kabah at Makkah) to perform the going (Tawaf) between them (As-Safa and Al-Marwah). And whoever does good voluntarily, then verily, Allah is All-Recognizer, All-Knower. (Quran: 2/158)

And complete the Hajj and 'umrah for Allah . But if you are prevented, then [offer] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals. And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its place of slaughter. And whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head [making shaving necessary must offer] a ransom of fasting [three days] or charity or sacrifice. And when you are secure, then whoever performs 'umrah [during the Hajj months] followed by Hajj [offers] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals. And whoever cannot find [or afford such an animal] - then a fast of three days during Hajj and of seven when you have returned [home]. Those are ten complete [days]. This is for those whose family is not in the area of al-Masjid al-Haram. And fear Allah and know that Allah is severe in penalty. (Quran : 2/196)

And proclaim to mankind the Hajj (pilgrimage). They will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every deep and distant (wide) mountain highway (to perform Hajj). (Quran: 22/27)

 In Sunnah

Narrated Ibn Umar: Allah's Apostle said: “Islam is based on (the following) five (principles): 1. To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Apostle. 2. To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly. 3. To pay Zakat (i.e. obligatory charity). 4. To perform Hajj. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca) 5. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.” (Bukhari: Book 2, Hadith 7)

“Sound Hajj has no reward except Paradise” (Bukhari & Muslim)

Narrated Ibn Umar: A man asked the Prophet: "What (kinds of clothes) should a Muhrim (a Muslim intending to perform Umrah or Hajj) wear? He replied, ‘He should not wear a shirt, a turban, trousers, a

Kinds of Hajj

1. Hajj e Tamattu’

The performance of Hajj & 'Umra together is the conven­ient way for Pilgrims who arrive early for Hajj. This type of Hajj is called Tamattu' and the Pilgrim Mutamatti’ (Tamattu' in Arabic means to take advantage of a facility).

 2. Hajj e Qiran

Ihram for Tamattu' is adopted from Miqat with the declar­ation of intention for 'Umra first. When 'Umra has been performed, the lhram is taken off and all that was unlawful in the state of Ihram is now lawful until the first day of Hajj i.e. 8th of Dhul Hijja arrives. Then the usual garments and normal activities of Hajj are resumed. On this day the Ihram is again adopted with the intention of Hajj and the Manasik of Hajj performed. In this type of Pilgrimage, a concession of taking off the lhram is provided in the interim period between 'Umra and Hajj. Pilgrims availing themselves of this convenience should make a sacrifice. Those who cannot afford a blood sacrifice should fast three days during Hajj and another seven days after its completion i.e. in all ten days.
 This is the combination of 'Umra and Hajj in the month of Hajj. The Pilgrim adopts the lhram from Miqat     with the declaration of intention of Hajj and 'Umra. Then on entering Mecca, he performs 'Umra and remains in the state of Ihram till he performs all the Manasik of Hajj in the same state of lhram. This is true for a Pilgrim who brings an animal of sacrifice along with him from Miqat. In case a Pilgrim has no animal of sacrifice from Miqat, he can perform Tamattu'. On the other hand if a Mutamatti’ changes his mind to perform Hajj e Qiran i.e. without abandoning Ihram after 'Umra for the interim period, he can do so before the 4th circuit of Tawaf of the Ka'ba during 'Umra. For travelers from abroad, who cannot bring animal of sacrifice with them, they can perform           Hajj e Qiran provided that they buy the animal in Mina and offer sacrifice. The sacrifice for a Qiran is Wajib.

3. Hajj e lfrad

This is when a Pilgrim does not intend to perform 'Umra before Hajj but intends only to perform Hajj. (He may not have enough time or means or convenience to perform 'Umra and Hajj together). A Pilgrim who performs Hajj e lfrad is called Mufrid. For this kind of Hajj when the lhram is adopted from Miqat the intention of lhram declares the intention of Hajj only.

Pillars of Hajj

Ihram - The first pillar of Hajj is the state of Ihram. Although, the word Ihram is often referred to as the two pieces of white cloth that men wear while doing Hajj and Umrah, it is more than that. Ihram is actually a state one is in while performing the rituals of Hajj and Umrah. The dress of Ihram just represents the state that one is in; two unstitched cloths for men, and regular loose clothing for women. However, it is important to note that the pilgrim is allowed to bathe and use the washroom as they require so the Ihram may be removed and put back on for such circumstances. The key element to the Ihram is to make the intention of Ihram, after taking a bath and praying two raka'h of prayers. Once the intention is made, and the necessary clothing are put on
Tawwaf - The second pillar of Hajj is Tawwaf. Tawwaf is the action of circuiting and circumambulating seven times around the Ka'bah in an anti-clockwise direction. Allah Almighty says, "Then let them complete the rites prescribed for them, perform their vows, and (again) circumambulate the Ancient House." (22:29)
Say'ee - The third pillar of Hajj is the Say'ee which is the walking between mount safa and marwa. Although the history of such a noble act is very rich and enlightening to know, Hajjplans.com will only look at the required acts in this section. Further information should be studied under your leader/teacher.

Describing the Hajj performed by the Prophet (S), Jabir (r) narrated, "Then, he - the Prophet (S) - got out from the door heading for As-Safaa, then, recited the above Qur'anic aayah: "Innas-Safaa wal-Marwata min Sha'aa'iril-Laah. Faman hajjal-Bayta awi'atamara falaa junaaha 'alayhi an yattawwafa bihimaa. Waman tattawwa'a khayran fa'inna Allaha Shaakirun 'Aleem."(2:158)

Then, he (S) said, "We begin with what Allah began." Then, he mounted as--Safaa until he faced the House and there he glorified Allah (i.e. raised his voice) saying "Allahu Akbar!" three times then" Laa ilaaha illa Allah wahdahu laa shareeka lah. Lahul-Mulku walahul- Hamdu wa huwa 'alaa kulli shay'in Qadeer. Laa ilaaha illa Allahu wahdahu, Sadaqa Wa'adahu, wa nasara 'abadahu wa hazamal-Ahzaaba wahdah!."

"There is no god but Allah. He is One and has no partner, to Him is the dominion and all praise is due to Him. We are returning, repenting, worshipping, prostrating, and to Allah we are very grateful. Allah is true to His promise, He gave victory to His servant and defeated the confederates all by Himself."

Habibah bint Abi Taghrah (r) heard the Prophet (S) saying to his companions,

"Perform Say'ee for Allah Almighty has ordained it upon you." [Ahmad].
Arafah - The fourth pillar of Hajj is Arafah, which known as the Big Day of hajj and is on th 9th of dhul hijja. The Prohet (S) said: "Hajj is 'Arafah." [Ahmad and at-Tirmidhi]. The pilgrim must be at 'Arafaat on the ninth of dhil Hijjah after Dhuhr time. Anyone, who misses Arafaat day, his, or her, Hajj is void. All the scholars said in consensus that this pillar is the most important one. The Prophet said, "Hajj is only valid by attending `Arafah." [At-Tirmidhi, an-Nassaa'i, Abu Dawud, Malek and ad-Daarimi]


The Hajj route in and around Mecca
Once at Mecca, the traditional Hajj route is as follows:
  1. Miqat, or changing into the pilgrims' ihram clothes
  2. Tawaf az-Ziyarah, walking around the Kaaba four times at a fast pace and three times at a slow pace, and Sa`y, walking seven times back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah (both rituals within the Masjid al-Haram)
  3. On the 8th day of the month, moving to Mina and camping overnight
  4. On the 9th, the Wuquf, journey to Arafat and spending the day in prayer
  5. Collecting pebbles and camping overnight at Muzdalifah
  6. On the 10th, the stoning of the jamraat, throwing seven pebbles at the large wall representing the Devil, followed by the sacrifice of an animal (often performed by proxy by buying a sacrifice voucher in Mecca)
  7. On the 10th or 11th, Tawaf az-Ziyarah, repeating step 2
  8. On the 11th and 12th, stoning of the jamraat, repeating step 6
  9. Tawaf Widaa, a final circumambulation of the Kaaba
The first two steps are known as the "lesser Hajj" or Umrah, while the full course is known as the "greater Hajj" or al-Hajj al-Akbar.

The Rites of Pilgrimage

After sunrise on the ninth of the Islamic month of Dhu Al-Hajjah, this vast crowd of nearly two million begins to walk some eight miles to the Plain of Arafat, passing Muzdalifah on the way. Many perform the noon and afternoon prayers at the Nimerah Mosque, a tradition set by the Prophet.

Approaching Arafat by midmorning, the pilgrim is amazed to find the vast plain covered by what appears to be a thick fog, even though the temperature hovers around 90 degrees Fahrenheit. This optical illusion is created by thousands of sprinklers placed atop 30-foot poles and spaced some 50 feet apart, which spread a fine mist of water to provide coolness. Millions of containers of chilled water are distributed from refrigerated trucks located along the pilgrim route.

Despite these precautions, the wail of sirens is ever present as hundreds of ambulances pick up pilgrims suffering from heat exhaustion and transport them to special clinics for treatment. The more serious cases are evacuated by helicopter to hospitals.

Pilgrims are required to spend the day in the plain, performing what is called the Standing at Arafat. Here they also visit the Mount of Mercy and ask for God's forgiveness for any sins committed and for blessings. Facilities have also been set up here to feed the pilgrims and meet any requirement they may have.

After the sun has set this river of humanity retraces its steps back toward Makkah, but stops at Muzdalifah until the brightness of day appears on the eastern horizon. Here the pilgrims collect seven pebbles and carry them to Mina. As they arrive in the valley, they trek along a two-level pedestrian walkway some 100-yards wide toward the three stone pillars called the Jamarat, which are meant to represent Satan. The pilgrims are required to cast the pebbles they have collected at the Stone Pillar of Aqabah while praising God, in a symbolic rejection of Satan. As the pilgrims approach along the walkway, they join those already at the pillar and, after hurling their pebbles circle toward the exit ramp in the direction of Makkah. Signs in various major languages direct the crowds along the route.

The pilgrims then walk some four miles along pedestrian walkways to reach Makkah, where they perform the tawaf, circling the Ka'abah in the Holy Mosque seven times counter clockwise. They then perform sa'ay, the running between Safa and Marwa in an enclosed, air-conditioned structure. Male pilgrims are then required to shave their heads, although cutting a lock of hair is acceptable for both men and women. At this point the pilgrims sacrifice an animal, donating its meat to the needy. Each year, over 600,000 animals are sacrificed, in modern abattoirs that complete the processing of the meat over the three days of the Eid. Distribution of this sacrificial meat goes to those in need in some 30 countries.

The rites of the pilgrimage are now completed. Pilgrims come out of Ihram and wear their normal clothes, but remain at Mina for the Eid Al-Adha, the festival that signals the culmination of the Hajj. Over the next two days, they stone the three pillars in the Jamarat, before performing the Tawaf Al-Wida', the Farewell Circumambulation of the Ka'abah before their departure from the city.

While not required as part of the Hajj, most pilgrims visit the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah during their visit to the Kingdom.

Prohibitions of Ihram.

After intention and Talbiyah, you are in the status of Ihram and from this time on you should not do acts that are forbidden in Ihram , for example, here are some of the things a muhrim must not do:
  • Cover head (men), cover face (women)
  • Cover the middle bone of the upper part of the feet (Both men and women))
  • Shave / cut hair
  • Cut nails
  • Wear perfume
  • Wear stitched clothing (men) / (Women can wear their ordinay clothes)
  • Hunting / killing
  • sex

Number of foreign pilgrims by year

According to the Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, the following number of foreign pilgrims arrived in Saudi Arabia each year, to perform the Hajj:
  • 1920: 58,584
  • 1921: 57,255
  • 1922: 56,319
  • 1996: 1,080,465   
  • 1997: 1,168,591
  • 1998: 1,132,344
  • 2001: 1,363,992
  • 2005: 1,534,759
  • 2006: 1,654,407
  • 2007: 1,707,814
  • 2008: 1,729,841
  • 2009: 1,613,000
  • 2010: 1,799,601
  • 2011: 1,828,195

Glossaries of Hajj

ARAFAT     An open field 9 miles from MECCA - pilgrims spend some time here
DUM/KAFFARAH    A penalty for not doing certain acts accurately
HAJR-E-ASWAD      Black stone, fixed in the wall of the southeastern corner of the KABAH
HALQ       Shaving of the head (men only )
HARAM   MECCA and a small area around it is called the HARAM
HATIM    A semi-enclosed area in the north side of the KABAH
IDHTIBA  During Umrah men’s right shoulder should be uncovered
IFRAD   Performance of HAJJ with IHRAM for HAJJ only
IHRAM  Clothed in IHRAM and being in a spiritual state (intention and TALBIYAH)
ISTILAAM   Kissing or touching the HAJR-E-ASWAD (black stone)
JABAL-E-RAHMAT   A hill in ARAFAT where we should make lots of dua
JAMARAAT   Pillars where pebbles are thrown.  There are three JAMARAATS
KABAH   The sacred house, in the center of the HARAM, QIBLA of Muslims
MAHRAM   A male companion to whom marriage is not permissible
MAQAME-E-IBRAHIM  Encased stone with footprints of Prophet IBRAHIM, A.S. used to rebuild KABAH
MARWAH   An hill near the KABAH where SAIEE is performed
MASJID-E-HARAM   The mosque around the KABAH
MATAF   Area around KABAH, where salat and TAWAF is performed
MINA   An open field 3 miles from MECCA where pilgrims stay during HAJJ
MIQAT   The place (boundary) where IHRAM are worn before going to MECCA
MIZAB-E-RAHMAT  The water outlet on the roof of the KABAH
MUALLIM/MUTAWWIF  Knowledgeable professional who guides the pilgrims
MUFRID  One who performs Hajj IFRAD
MUHRIM  One who wears IHRAM
MULTAZAM  The wall (space) between HAJR-E-ASWAD and the door of the KABAH
MUTAMMATI   One who performs Hajj Tammattu
MUZDALIFAH   An open field 3 miles from MINA - pilgrims spend some time here
NIYAT  Your intention before the action
QARIN  One who performs Hajj QIRAN
QASR/TAQSEER   Men shave their heads and women cut one inch of their hair
QIRAN  Perform UMRAH and HAJJ staying in the state of IHRAM - with the same
RAMAL  Walking like a soldier (brisk with chest pushed out) for men only
RAMI  Throwing pebbles at the JAMARAAT
RUKN-E-IRAQI  The northeastern corner of the KABAH
RUKN-E-SHAMI  The western corner of the KABAH
RUKN-E-YAMANI  The south western corner of the KABAH
SAFA   A hill near the KAIBAH, were SAIEE is performed
SAIEE   To perform seven (7) circuits from SAFA to MARWAH
SHAUT   One circuit around the KABAH or one circuit to or from SAFA to MARWAH
TAMATT'U   Performing UMRAH and HAJJ in the same year with a different IHRAM
TAWAF   Going around the KABAH
TAWAF-E-QUDOM   The first TAWAF performed on arrival into Mecca
TAWAF-E-WIDA   Farewell TAWAF performed at the time just before departing MECCA
TAWAF-E-ZIYARAT   FARDH TAWAF which is performed after the stay in ARAFAT
UMRAH   In the state of Ihram, perform TAWAF and SAIEE 
ZAM ZAM  Water from the well in the HARAM

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